موسسه زبان های خارجی فرازان
برگزارکننده دوره های آموزش تخصصی زبان در سطوح مقدماتی تا پیشرفته در اصفهان
مدیر وبلاگ : مجید ودائی
Using Music in the ESL Classroom
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
When students make a major breakthrough in learning, it is music to a teacher's ears. There is nothing more rewarding for a teacher, than seeing their students smile and laugh while they learn. The same can be said for students. Students who are taught in a fun and creative way, love coming to class. Using music in the classroom is a great way for teachers to achieve success with L2 learners. Oliver Wendall Holmes suggests taking a musical bath once a week, saying that music is "to the soul what water is to the body."
Benefits of using Music
Have you ever heard of anyone who doesn't like music? Some people may not like art, dancing, reading, or movies, but almost everyone likes one kind of music or another. Most people like many different kinds of music. Studies have shown that music...
- improves concentration
- improves memory
- brings a sense of community to a group
- motivates learning
- relaxes people who are overwhelmed or stressed
- makes learning fun
- helps people absorb material
"Music stabilizes mental, physical and emotional rhythms to attain a state of deep concentration and focus in which large amounts of content information can be processed and learned." Chris Brewer, Music and Learning
Techniques for Using Music with L2 Learners
There are a variety of different ways to use music in the classroom. Some teachers prefer to use background music and others use music lyrics as the basis of a lesson. Music can be used to:
- introduce a new theme or topic (Christmas/colours/feelings)
- break the ice in a class where students don't know each other or are having difficulty communicating
- change the mood (liven things up or calm things down)
- teach and build vocabulary and idioms
- review material (background music improves memory)
- teach pronunciation and intonation
- teach songs and rhymes about difficult grammar and spelling rules that need to be memorized ("i before e", irregular verbs, phrasal verbs)
- teach reading comprehension
- inspire a class discussionteach listening for details and gist.
"Music is the universal language of mankind." Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Many teachers try using music once in the class, but forget to do it again. It might take a few times before you and your class get used to hearing music while learning. If you can commit to using music once a week, you may soon see the benefits, and realize that you want to do it more often and in a variety of ways. Here are 10 activities for you to try:
- Use background music such as classical, Celtic music or natural sounds to inspire creativity
- Teach your national anthem
- Teach a song that uses slang expressions ("I heard it through the Grape Vine")
- Teach a song that uses a new tense you have introduced
- Add variety to your reading comprehension lesson. Students can read lyrics and search for main idea, theme, details.
- Teach Christmas vocabulary through traditional carols
- Write or choose a classroom theme song
- Create (or use already prepared lessons) cloze exercises using popular song lyrics
- Create variations to familiar songs by making them personal for your class members or your lesson
- Have "lyp sync" contests. Allow students to choose their own songs. A little competition goes a long way in the classroom. Have groups explain the lyrics of their song before or after they perform.
"When the music changes so, so does the dance." African proverb.
Teaching Kids with Music
Using music with ESL kids has all of the same benefits mentioned above and more. Children are natural music lovers. You don't have to convince them that it will help them learn. If you feel uncomfortable singing in front of the class to teach a song, use a tape or CD player. (Don't expect your students to sing if you don't. Remember, that they don't care about the quality of your singing voice, just like you don't care about theirs.) Here are some suggested activities to use with kids (If you are not familiar with any of the songs mentioned, simply put the titles into an online search):
- Transition songs: Teach simple songs that indicate transitions from one activity to another, such as "clean up" songs and "hello/goodbye" songs.
- Energy boosters: Teach simple action songs that require kids to stand up and move around. Think of traditional birthday games that use songs, such as pass the parcel (use a classroom mascot or other favourite item instead of a gift) or musical chairs.
- Animal songs: Children love learning about animals! Teach animals and animal sounds using repetitive songs like "Old McDonald had a Farm" and "There was an Old Lady who swallowed a fly."
- Multi-culturalism: Teach about multi-cultural instruments and learn how to create them in class.
- Remembering Names: Help students remember names of their classmates (this helps teachers too) with songs like "Willoughby Wallaby Woo."
- Alphabet songs: Use lots of different alphabet songs (not just the traditional ABC) to help kids remember them in English. Chicka Chicka Boom Boom by Bill Martin Jr and John Archambault is a catchy children's book and song.
- Colours: Teach the colours with various colour songs and rhythms, such as Louis Armstrong's "What a Wonderful World" or Kermit the Frog's "It aint easy being green."
- Rewards: Reward hard working kids with "Music Time". Let them make requests for background music that they can listen to while they work on their written exercises.
- Student teachers: Encourage the kids to teach each other songs from their own language. Turn this into an English lesson by having students translate the meaning.
"Musical nourishment which is rich in vitamins is essential for children." Zolton Kodaly
Tips for Using Music Effectively
- When teaching students a song, it is a good idea to introduce an instrumental version first (If an instrumental version is not available, play the song softly in the background while they are working on something or hum the melody before introducing the lyrics). If students become familiar with the sound of the music first, they will be more likely to understand the words.
- Make a vocabulary list ahead of time. Go over the words once before you introduce the song.
- Expose students to a certain song many days in a row. Within a few days, students will not be able to get the song out of their head!
- Choose interactive songs whenever possible. Adding actions enhances language acquisition and memory.
- Have soft or upbeat music playing before class to encourage a positive atmosphere. Turning the music off is a great way to signal to a large class that it is time to begin.
Online Materials and Resources
These online music resources offer numerous ideas and tips for using music in the classroom
Teaching Large Classes
Most teachers agree that teaching a small group of students is easier, more enjoyable, and less time consuming than teaching a large group. Unfortunately, due to budgets, space, or lack of teachers, many ESL schools only offer large classes. In some schools, large classes may consist of up to 50 or more students. While your class may look more like a University lecture hall, your job is not to lecture. Just like teaching a small class, you must come up with engaging activities that keep all of your students interested and participating with the goal of improving their communication skills. While there are numerous challenges when it comes to teaching large classes, there are many coping skills and activities that you can use to make your job easier.
Advantages of Teaching Large Classes
- High Energy: Classes with many students may be noisy, but they are also fun and exciting.
- Timing: Classes go by quickly in a large class, and you will rarely catch yourself looking at the clock. You will regularly find yourself with extra activities that you did not complete that you can save and use in your next class.
- Participation: There is always someone who is willing to answer questions even if they are just guessing. Make sure to take answers from a variety of students.
- Fillers: Teachers have less need for fillers since core activities and lessons take longer to complete.
Challenges of Teaching Large Classes
- Intimacy: Remembering student's names can take a while. Teachers may feel that they do not get to know their students as well as they would like to.
- Anxiety: Some teachers feel anxious being so outnumbered by the students. In addition, some students are afraid to ask questions or participate in a large class.
- Student needs: Meeting individual needs can be difficult or impossible when class size is very large.
- Marking: Grading assignments and tests can be very time consuming, and your pay will generally be the same for a smaller class.
- Distractions: There are more distractions for teachers in large classes, such as latecomers and people chatting while you are teaching.
- Preparation: Making photocopies for a large class can be very time consuming. Other teachers may be bothered by how much time you spend using the photocopier.
- Noise level: Large classes can become out of hand when students are working in pairs or groups. At times you may feel more like a disciplinarian than a teacher.
- Monitoring students: Teachers may find it difficult to keep students on task as they monitor pair and group work.
- Space: There is limited space in a classroom for energetic activities such as role-playing.
- Textbooks and resources: There may not be enough textbooks or computers available for all students.
Strategies for Coping with Large Classes
- Use a teacher's notebook: Attach a small notebook and pen to your belt loop. Take notes while you are monitoring pair or group learning. Review common errors as a whole group after an activity is complete.
- Spread out: Find another space that your class can use for energetic whole group activities. Find a lobby or spare classroom in the building that your students can spread out into when they are preparing a project or performance. Take students outside if there is no indoor space available.
- Create a participation grade: Make homework and attendance count by doing regular checks and making it part of their final grade. Giving a daily exam tip also encourages attendance.
- Encourage competition: Establish a fun and competitive atmosphere within the class, by dividing the class into teams. You may change the teams once in a while or leave them the same throughout a semester. Teams can win points for certain accomplishments (If noise and behaviour is a problem, students can lose points too.).
- Relax: Find ways to relax before class so that you don't feel anxious. Never attempt to prepare a lesson in the morning, right before class. Always have a water bottle handy. Always have an extra activity on hand in case something doesn't go as you expect it to.
- Establish trust: Learn unique ways to remember names and do your best to get to know something about each of your students. Create a seating chart on the first day and ask students to stick with it for a while. Tell your students at least one or two things about yourself beyond your role of teaching.
- Manage the noise: Establish a signal that you want your class to stop what they are doing and listen. This should be done from the first day, so that students become accustomed to it right away. Be careful not to use gestures or sounds that would offend anyone.
- Reduce marking and preparation time: Design quizzes and tests in a way so that you can reduce the amount of marking. Use peer evaluations when possible. If students submit journals, just read them and leave a short comment and/or suggestion, rather than fixing every grammar mistake. Designate a specific time when the teacher's room is slow to do most of your photocopying for the week. This will save you from feeling guilty for taking up the photocopier for a long time when another teacher only has a few copies to make.
- Enforce a late policy: Notify students of your late policy on the first day and stick to it. For example, don't let students enter your classroom after a warm-up has ended. If students miss class, make it their responsibility to catch up, not yours.
- Share your e-mail address: In a large class, you will find yourself feeling drained before and after class if you let students come early or stay late to ask questions every day. This alone can make you hate your job, especially if you are not paid for hours when you are not teaching. Encourage students to e-mail you with questions, and answer them on your own time. If you don't like the e-mail suggestion, try finishing your class ten minutes early once in a while and allow your students free conversation time. Take questions on a first come basis during this time.
Activities to use in Large Classes
- Small group discussions: Use topics related to a theme, or ask students to submit topic suggestions.
- Who Am I?: Tape the name of a famous person to the back of each student. Students go around the room asking questions and trying to identify themselves. Once they guess who they are they can place their nametag on the front and continue helping other students identify themselves.
- Team spelling contests: Each student who gets the spelling correct gets a point for their team.
- Balderdash: Large class can be split into teams. Teacher calls out a word and students have to write down the part of speech and definition. Each student to get both correct gets a point for her team.
- Write the question: Large class can be split into teams. The teacher calls out an answer and the students have to write the question. (ex. "Lynn") Each student to write the correct question gets a point. (ex. answer: What's your middle name?")
- Questionnaires: Students circulate around the room asking each other questions. Students can create their own questions on a given topic or theme, or you can provide the questionnaire handout. Follow up by asking each student to report the most interesting answer they received.
- Categories: The teacher calls out a category, such as fruit, and each student has to name a fruit when it is his turn. If a student hesitates for more than five seconds, he or she has to choose a new category and sit out the rest of the game. The last person to get out wins.
Teaching Small Classes
Most teachers would agree that teaching a small class comes with many benefits. Teachers can offer one-on-one assistance at times and are more likely to meet the individual needs of their students. Some teachers, however, find it quite challenging to keep their students interested and excited about learning in a small class. Depending on the location you are teaching in, small classes range from about three to seven students. In countries where large classes are the norm, classes of twenty may still be considered small. There are numerous coping strategies and activities that teachers can use to deal with the challenges of timing and student engagement.
Advantages of Teaching Small Classes
- Comfort: Teachers and students often feel more comfortable when the class size is smaller. Students generally feel more comfortable voicing their questions and opinions.
- Students' needs met: Teachers can design customized lessons to meet the needs and interests of all of the class members.
- Student centred: Teaching is student centred and often more communicative than is possible in large classes. Students also have more opportunity to speak.
- Space: Students have plenty of space to move around in the classroom. Teachers can also arrange excursions (or suggest spontaneous ones) outside of the classroom where students can be exposed to real world English.
- Attendance: Class attendance is usually high because students know they will be missed if they are absent. They also feel like they belong to the group.
- Tasks Completed: Assignments and homework are more likely to be completed because the teacher is more likely to check.
- Preparation time: Less preparation time is required for photocopying. There are generally enough textbooks to go around so photocopying is limited to extra activities.
- Detailed Feedback: Teachers have time to provide detailed feedback when marking assignments and tests, so students get a better sense of how they are improving and where they need to work harder. Teachers also have more time to answer questions before, during, and after class
Challenges of Teaching Small Classes
- Timing: Activities finish quickly, so teachers may need to prepare more lessons and games.
- Distractions: Pairs can get distracted easily since they can hear what each other are saying.
- Attendance: If a few students do miss a class, planned lessons can occasionally flop. For example, you may plan a lesson that requires pair work, and then find that only three of your six students come to class.
- Fillers: Teachers must always have plenty of fillers on hand for times when lessons or activities get completed quickly.
- Boredom: Students may become bored working with the same pairs or groupings all of the time. There may also be less energy in the room in a small class.
- Anxiety: While you will likely feel more comfortable teaching in a small class, shy students who are used to blending into a large class may be uncomfortable participating. You will have to take special measures to help them gain confidence.
- Activities not always suitable: Some activities in textbooks, such as debates or role-playing, may not be possible if a class is very small. You will have to spend some preparation time adapting textbook activities.
Strategies for Coping with Small Classes
- Fillers: Always have plenty of fillers (such as puzzles and games) ready in case activities finish quickly. Keep a list of games or warm ups on hand to use when energy gets low. Some may need to be adapted slightly if the class is very small.
- Review often: Take the time to make sure that your students understand the lessons and material.
- Encourage confidence: Help shy students to feel more comfortable by trying not to put them on the spot. Let them get comfortable with you and their classmates before you start calling on them to speak up more. Remember to praise them often and save criticism for private interviews.
- Change the dynamics: Invite students from other classes in once in a while. Prearrange pair group and getting to know you activities with other teachers who have small classes. If you have high level students pair them with lower level students and give them the opportunity to teach.
- Ask for feedback: Take time to find out whether or not students are happy with the class. Ask for suggestions regarding activities they want to do or skills they would like to improve. Put a question box or envelope out so that students can remain anonymous if they want to.
Activities to use in Small Classes
- Use English newspapers: Ask students to bring in a daily paper. Assign one story to each student to read and present. See the Guide for Teachers on how to use EnglishClub's Weekly News Digest in the classroom.
- Use music in the classroom: Have students listen to English songs. Use cloze exercises and teach vocabulary and idioms.
- Storytelling: Have students tell stories from their own cultures or childhoods. It is fun to take students to a new location to do this, such as a park or a coffee shop.
- Chain writing: Each student writes one sentence on a piece of paper and then passes it on until each story is complete.
- Role-playing: Give students lots of opportunity to use the language they are learning in mock-style everyday settings.
- Board games: Small groups are great for playing board games such as Word Up. Card games are a great way for students to practice asking questions. Make sure that they speak in English rather than speaking with gestures or in their own native language.
- Online lessons: Besides our own Learning Center, EnglishClub offers many links to other online sites. Small classes can make use of computer labs easily. If your class does not have a computer lab, take students to the local library regularly to introduce them to the online learning sites.
- Films: There are numerous lessons online for incorporating film into your class lessons. This can be done at all levels with great success, especially in a small class. Stop the film often in order to check comprehension and keep students focused.
- Class Excursions: Take advantage of the class size, by getting out of the school as often as possible. Exposing your students to real English outside of the classroom is one of the most important things you can do if they are visiting from foreign countries.
- Guest speakers: Invite people into your classroom to speak or participate in a lesson. This can be other students who have a special interest or understanding about a topic you are working with, or other people from the community who would be willing to come into your class. Your students will appreciate a new face from time to time in a class that has limited numbers.
Teaching Multi-Level Classes
What is a Multi-level ESL class?
Multi-level classrooms are as varied as the students in them. Most often, they include students who communicate in English at a variety of different levels. They may also be considered multi-level because they include students with different types of learning backgrounds, such as those who have learned orally and those who have learned mainly from a textbook. Students may also have different levels of literacy in their own native language. A classroom that contains some students who are familiar with the Roman alphabet and some students who are not may also be considered multi-level. Finally, the term multi-level can be used to refer to a group of students working together who range greatly in age.
Advantages and Challenges of Teaching Multi-level Classes
When faced with the challenge of a multi-level classroom many teachers do not know where to start. They fear that the preparation will take much longer, and that the students will be more demanding. Schools that have multi-level classes often have limited budgets, and teachers may fear that they will not be paid for what they are worth. However, it is only by looking at the advantages of the multi-level classroom and employing strategies to overcome the challenges, that teachers can achieve success.
Advantages of Multi-level classrooms
- Students are able to learn at their own pace
- Students learn to work well in a group
- Students become independent learners
- Students develop strong relationships with their peers
- Students become partners in learning
Challenges of Multi-level classrooms
- Finding appropriate teaching resources and material
- Organizing appropriate groupings within the class
- Building an effective self-access centre in the classroom
- Determining the individual needs of each student
- Ensuring that all students are challenged and interested
- Enforcing English only policies when teacher is occupied and students are working in small groups or pairs
Determining the Needs of your Students
One of the first things you should do when assigned to a multi-level classroom is determine the needs of the individual members. If possible, this should be done before the first class.
There are a variety of ways to conduct needs assessment, depending on the size of the class, and your access to an office and a computer. Many schools use a standardized test for new students. While this may help teachers determine the language level of the students in the multi-level class, standardized tests cannot determine the personal needs of the individual students. For small classes it is useful to invite students into the office for a quick chat to determine what your students' objectives are (ex. improving writing skills, learning conversational English, understanding of rules and grammar). Students may not know the answer to this, so it is a good idea to create a list that they can pick from. You may give the option of picking a primary and a secondary reason. Here are some examples that could be placed in a list for students to choose from:
- To improve my speaking skills
- To get into college
- To use for travelling
- To become a future teacher
- To learn the rules of grammar
- To please my parents
You should also use this time to explain to your student that there will be other students with different levels of English in the class and that you will be using partnering and grouping exercises and activities in order to meet the needs of everyone. If you don't have access to an office or classroom or you have a large class, you may want to e-mail the question to your students, or have short telephone conversations with them. When none of these options are possible, you can always set aside your first class as an intake day. If possible, stagger the start times of your students by five minutes so that you can speak to each one individually. Brainstorming in a group may also work if you have a small enough class. In a circle on the board place the words, "I need English to/for..." and ask students to volunteer their answers.
Make sure to record the needs and level of each of your students in a simple way. Keep a chart for yourself, and alter it as your students' needs change. Make a conscious effort to monitor the needs of your individual students regularly. You may find that some students feel uncomfortable acting as a peer tutor, while others feel that they are focusing too much on a skill that they will never use in the real world.
|Julio||Mexico City||Low-intermediate||Will be working with tourists in his job as a golf instructor. Wants to learn conversational English. Doesn't require writing skills.|
|Naoko||Japan||Advanced||Wants to teach English to school aged children for a living. Has studied in English in Japan for 10 years. Wants to work with native English teacher. Poor pronunciation. (Eager to help as peer tutor.)|
Glossary of Terms
- cross-ability learners: Pairs or groups of students working together with varying degrees of ability or competence. More advanced learners can gain confidence and improve competence by helping and teaching lower level peers.
- groupings: Different ways of putting students together (based on things such as cross-ability, like-ability, special needs, compatibility).
- like-ability learners: Pairs or groups of students working together who share similar levels of ability or competence.
- multi-level class: Group of students who learn and study together in one room, despite having varying levels of abilities and/or literacy backgrounds.
- self access materials: Learning resources (ex. listening exercises, readers) that include instructions and answers, and are available for a student to use independently. Students in multi-level classrooms often finish small group or individual assignments and activities at different times, so it is important to have self-access materials available at all times to keep students engaged in learning.
- small group activity: An exercise or game in which a small group of students can participate in and learn from. Groups can be composed in many different ways (common interest, common levels, varying levels) and changed often.
- whole group activity: An exercise or game in which all students can participate in and learn from, regardless of their competence level and language ability.
Finding a core textbook for your class may help you if you have a number of students who are at a similar level of English. You may find that you need more than one level of the same textbook series. If you require more than two levels, however, using a core textbook may only make your life more complicated, and multi-level textbooks are difficult to come by. Another option is to use a theme based approach. Keeping all of your students working on activities and lessons based on the same theme is a great way of maintaining a class-like atmosphere in a multilevel classroom. Not only will this help your students feel like they all belong in the group, it will save you prep time and make you feel more organized. Follow up activities, such as games and discussions can then be based on the theme. English Club has collected a wide range of theme based lessons to save time for teachers.
- Whole group Warm-up: Starting your class with a whole-group warm-up is a great way to foster a sense of community in your multi-level class.
- Information gap exercises: Works great for cross-ability and like-ability pairs.
- Crossword puzzles: Works well for cross-ability pairs or small groups. Despite their English vocabulary levels, each student will bring a wide variety of knowledge to the group to help fill in the puzzle.
- Self-Access Materials: Make sure everything is well labelled and organized. The materials should reflect the needs and interests of the students in your class. Self-Access materials can be intimidating for students if you just have a shelf full of textbooks. It is best to photocopy many copies of worksheets and exercises. If you have students who are preparing for something such as the TOEIC test, have a file marked TOEIC Practice sheets. If your students need to improve their listening skills, have an audio shelf with an easy-to-use CD/tape player and level appropriate resources (CD's and worksheets). Rather than having guided readers, it is better to have photocopies of stories or articles with corresponding tasks (such as writing activities) stapled right to the readings. Board games, such as Word Up (comes with question cards for 5 different levels), should be viewed as an essential tool in every multi-level classroom.
- Folktales: It is easy to find different levels of common folk or fairytales. These work well in children's classes, and there are even some that are appropriate for adults. If you have difficulty finding a folktale that is a suitable level, you can always rewrite one yourself and use it again and again when you teach. A local children's librarian should be able to direct you to resources that you need. The follow up activities for folktales are unlimited, but include comprehension questions, group discussions, vocabulary activities, creative writing exercise, and role-playing, all of which can be done in various groupings.
- Art and images: Visual stimuli can be a great teaching tool. Use paintings as the basis for class discussions, writing assignments, and vocabulary building. Students of all different levels can participate together by describing photographs. Encourage students to bring in their own pictures and art and find ways to build lessons around them. One great pair activity that acts as a listening and speaking activity is to put students in pairs and have one of them describe a picture while the other tries to draw it. This can also be done as a whole group. Your students can choose a photo and describe it to you or another student who will try to reproduce it on the board.
- Computer lab assignments: If your school has a computer lab for students to use, or if you have a computer in your classroom, allow pairs to do online English lessons with English Club's Learning Centre. Jot down the URL's of any lessons you think will be useful, or give your students free time to explore the site.
Teaching Method Strategies
Experiment with different types of groupings to find the ones that work best.
You may find that cross-ability pairs work best for certain types of activities, while like-ability small groups work better for others. If possible, use a wide variety of groupings to keep things interesting for your class.
Use a simple schedule that is similar each day.
Here is an example:
- Start with a warm-up that involves the whole group.
- Break part of the class off into one type of grouping (i.e. pairs) and work with part of the class on a lesson, grammar point, or activity.
- Break off the class into another type of grouping (i.e. small groups) and have the other students use self-access materials.
- Bring the class back together for a whole group activity/game.
Isolate students within the class who are interested in peer tutoring.
This doesn't have to be the student with the highest level of English. Your students who fall somewhere in the middle may in fact be the most valuable to you, as they strive to attain a level of competency comparable to the most advanced students. Remind your students that the best way to practice and improve a new language is to teach it to someone else.
Consider enlisting a volunteer.
Limited budgets or low enrolment are often the reasons behind multi-level classes. For this reason, it may be difficult to convince administrators or managers that you need a paid assistant. If you feel overwhelmed, consider hiring a volunteer. Finding someone who is interested in helping you with your preparation work and teaching may not be as difficult as you think. Most native English students who are going into the teaching profession will be more than willing to put in volunteer teaching hours in exchange for a reference. Once you have permission from your supervisor, you can post an ad at the local library or college, or at a teacher training centre. You may even want to suggest placing an ad on the website for the school you work at.
How English Club Can Help
EnglishClub.com is a great place to start when looking for activities and exercises that will reduce your preparation time. The Teacher's Guide is filled with ideas and links to help save you time while planning interesting, fun, and worthwhile activities and lessons for your students. You will find many worksheets that can be used as self-access materials, and numerous activities that can be used when your multi-level group is learning together.
Here are some other links that are useful:
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آموزشگاه زبان، دبیرستان،
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